These clause in charterparties are "general protective clauses" usually protecting the shipowner. They also deal with "frustration" of the contract because of impossibility of performance or illegality, if the country in which the vessel is registered makes trading with a country which is involved in war or hostilities against the former country's law. "War and hostilities" may also expose the ship, its crew to additional risks, some of which may not be insurable or, if insurable, at a very high cost.